About Planning and Managing Coastal Areas and Islets
The legal basis related to planning and managing coastal areas and islets sourced to Act No. 27 of the Year 2007 on Management of Coastal Areas and Islets, which explained that the plan and management comprises of:
- Rencana Strategis Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil (literally can be translated as Strategic Planning on Coastal Areas and Islets, ed.) or the RSWP-3-K is a plan that contain cross-sectors policy direction on areas planned for development through the determination of objectives, aims, broad strategy, implementation targets and the proper indicators upon monitoring nationwide plans. The RSWP-3-K is an inseparable part of local government’s –in provincial and regency/municipal levels, long-term plan that has a period of 20 years and to be observed for at least once in every five years.
- Rencana Zonasi Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil (literally can be translated as Zoning Plan on Coastal Areas and Islets, ed.) or RZWP-3-K) is a plan that determine the direction of natural resources utilisation, where each units of plan are to be attached with the determination of structures and spatial pattern on planned areas regarding which activities are allowed and which are not. The document of RZWP-3-K should be in harmony, alignment and equilibrated with the Rencana Tata Ruang Wilayah (literally can be translated as Spatial Planning) of the provincial or regency/municipal government. RZWP-3-K is to be legislated under a Local Regulation, with a period of 20 years and to be observed for at least once in every five years.
- Rencana Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil (literally can be translated as Management Plan on Coastal Areas and Islets, ed.) or the RPWP-3-K is a plan that contain structure of policy frameworks, procedures and responsibilities in order to coordinate decision-making between government agencies regarding the agreement on natural resources utilisation or development activities in a certain, determined zone. The RSWP-3-K is valid for a period of 5 years, and to be observed at least once within the period.
- Rencana Aksi Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Pulau-pulau Kecil (literally can be translated as Action Plan on Management of Coastal Areas and Islets, ed.) or the RAPWP-3-K is a follow-up to management plan in coastal areas and islets, so it can be concluded that RAPWP-3-K and the RPWP-3-K is inseparable. The RAPWP-3-K consist of objectives, aims, budget and work plan for one or several years that are coordinated to implement several activities that are required, and involves the central government, local government, and other stakeholders. The Action Plan is implemented based on the direction of Management Plan and Zoning Plan in order to achieve those determined in the Strategic Plan, which has a period of one to three years.
Through Act No. 27 of the Year 2007, it is clearly regulated that local government –in provincial and regency or municipal levels, has the obligation to compose those aforementioned plans, where each processes should involve the communities (through events such as public consultation, etc.).
Conservation areas in the context of management of coastal areas and islets, along with general utilisation and national strategic areas, is one of the recognised ‘space’ that is allocated, and to be directed through the RZWP-3-K in the provincial and regency/municipal levels.
Phases in the Establishment of Kawasan Konservasi Perairan or KKP
The phases of establishment of KKP is regulated through Central Government Regulation No. 60 of the Year 2007, which is itemized through Minister of Marine and Fisheries Decree No. 2 of the Year 2009 on the Procedures of Establishment of KKP, and several other ministerial decrees as well. Based on the aforementioned Central Government Regulation, those phases are:
1. Proposal of Initiative
Individuals, community groups, research institutions, educational institutions, and NGO(s) can do this proposal, and submit it to the local government along with “Initial Assessment” and “Location Map.” The Initial Assessment should contain general description of the proposed location and the justifications regarding the interests and urgency in proposing the location as KKP, while Location Map is an initial sketch and estimation of the proposed location.
2. Identification and Inventory
Central government or local government – in the provincial or regency/municipal level, is to follow-up the Proposal of Initiative by conducting series of activities that comprises of identification and assessment of potentials, surveys, socialization, public consultations, and coordination with all the related agencies and/or institution. For the record, the activities in identifying and assessing the potentials of a proposed area are to gather as many data and information as possible, specifically in the field of ecology, social and culture, economy, and policies that may bolster the establishment of KKP.
3. The Reservation of KKP
Results from the activities conducted in the prior Phases can and may be used to reserve the proposed area, which is to be legislated by the Minister, Governor or Regent/Mayor, accordingly based on each authorities. The Reservation of KKP comprises, among others: exact location and the total coverage of an area proposed; the type of KKP; the appointment of organisation unit under his/her authority (Minister, Governor, or Regent/Mayor) to follow-up and prepare the management of KKP.
4. The Establishment of KKP
Based on the reserved KKP, Minister of Marine and Fisheries or the appointed official will conduct evaluation. Based on the evaluation result, Ministry can establish the KKP under a ministerial decree. Related to the management unit of a KKP, it is stated through Ministry of Marine and Fisheries Decree No. 17 of the Year 2008 that management unit of KKP can be a Unit Pelaksana Teknis (literally can be translated as Technical Implementation Unit, ed.) or UPT in the central government, Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah (literally can be translated as Task Unit, ed.) or UPT in the local government level, or a part of a unit of an organisation that handles conservation in the coastal areas and islets.
Types of KKP
The Minister of Marine and Fisheries Decree No. 2 of the Year 2009 on Procedures of Establishment of KKP recognises several types of KKP:
- Taman Nasional Perairan (literally can be translated as Aquatic National Park, ed.) is a conservation area that has native ecosystems, which are utilise for the purpose of research, science, education, sustainable fisheries, marine tourism and other recreational activities. The definition of Taman Nasional Perairan is specified in to several criteria (Paragraph 1 of Article 8);
- Suaka Alam Perairan (literally can be translated as Natural Aquatic Sancuatry, ed.) is an aquatic conservation area with certain uniqueness that is established to protect the diversity of fish species and their ecosystem. Criteria to this type of KKP is stated in Paragraph 2 of Article 8 of the Minister of Marine and Fisheries Decree No. 2 of the Year 2009;
- Taman Wisata Perairan (literally can be translated as Aquatic Tourism Park, ed.) is a conservation area dedicated for tourism and other recreational activities. The three criteria regarding Taman Wisata Perairan are further explained in Paragraph 3 of Article 8;
- Suaka Perikanan (literally can be translated as Fisheries Sanctuary, ed.) is a certain aquatic area, salt and/or fresh water, with certain conditions and uniqueness function as habitat and/or breeding area for certain species of fish.
Zones Within KKP
Based on the definition, KKP is an area that is protected and managed based on zoning system, and is specified through Minister of Marine and Fisheries Decree No. 30 of the Year 2010 on Planning of Management and Zoning in KKP. According to the Decree, there are four zones within KKP:
- Zona Inti (literally can be translated as Core Zone, ed.) is a zone that should exist in every KKP, and should be allocated at least 2% from the total area. Core Zone is specifically intended for three purposes: absolute protection of habitat and fish population; research; and education. Simply, Core Zone can be said as a prohibited zone for utilisation, but with very limited exceptions for research and education;
- Zona Perikanan Berkelanjutan (literally can be translated as Sustainable Fisheries Zone, ed.) is the Zone for: protection of habitat and fish population; an area that allows fishing activities, but with methods and tools that are friendly to the environment; tourism and other recreational activities; research and development; and education. Based on the intention, the Sustainable Fisheries Zone is allowed for utilisation through specific activities, which are managed based on principles in sustainability;
- Zona Pemanfaatan (literally can be translated as Utilisation Zone, ed.) is dedicated for: protection and preservation of habitat and fish population; tourism and other recreational activities; research and development; and education. Similar to the Sustainable Fisheries Zone, Utilisation Zone permits certain utilisation activities, but the implementation of those activities should remain in the corridor of sustainability.
- Zona Lainnya (literally can be translated as Others Zone, ed.) is a different Zone than the prior three zones, that because of its functions and conditions is dedicated for other specific zones such as: protection zone; or rehabilitation zone.