Balinese are guided by several local wisdoms such as “Nyegara Gunung” (literally can be translated as ‘Ridge to Reef’), “Tri Hita Karana” (a traditional framework on sustainability that emphasises the interrelation and harmony between human, God and nature), and “Sad Kerti” (the word ‘Sad’ means six. Sad Kerti is six strategies/elements in achieving prosperity and happiness that comprises of soul, human, forest, lake/fresh water, sea and the universe). “Nyegara Gunung” is a Balinese philosophy that considers the mountains and the seas as one and integral. Therefore, any of our behaviors in the mountain will impact the sea, and vice versa.
Have Our Behaviors in Bali Reflected These Concepts?
When we visited the beach (or mountain) to enjoy sunset, or sunrise, we often got distracted (if not disturbed) by wastes, abrasion, or other ‘less-beautiful’ views. Bali, as an islet, is constantly facing imminent threats due to uncontrollable development, especially from the tourism sector as the Island’s main economic driving force. Coastal areas (for example) as tourism object must be preserved so that it can sustainably provide ‘services’ for us as its ‘users.’
Have Bali Anticipated and Seek Solutions for Those Threats?
One of the efforts is to synergize conservation through a network of Kawasan Konservasi Perairan or KKP (the commonly known term of ‘Marine Protected Area’ or MPA is partially suitable to describe the legal term of KKP in Indonesia. Click here for further explanation regarding definition of ‘KKP’). As mandated through Central Government Regulation No. 60 of the Year 2007 on Conservation of Fish Resources, it is mentioned that KKP is an approach in managing aquatic areas that emphasises the principles of good governance (Participation, Transparency, Coordination and Accountability).
A KKP is managed by a zoning system that consists of: Core Zone; Utilisation Zone; Sustainable Fisheries Zone, and; Other Zone. There are six substances in the system of management of a KKP that comprises of: Scientific Inputs; Spatial Planning; Capacity Building; Integrated Policy; Decision Support System, and; Sustainable Financing.
KKP is established through the approaches of protection and utilisation where some parts of the aquatic area are allocated in to several aforementioned Zones. For example, Core Zone is allocated for the fish to spawn and breed, as they are an important economic source for the community.
Why Should Bali KKP Network be Established and Beneficial?
An effective management of a KKP will protect and preserve the biodiversity of the ecosystem(s) that would eventually support sustainable tourism and fisheries. The estuary of a KKP is, of course, the enhancement of benefits generated from our aquatic resources for the community at the present moment, and to guarantee the availability of those resources for generations to come.
In spatial context, the Province of Bali is considered as an integrated ecosystem of an ‘islet’ that comprises of terrestrial, marine and aerial space. Therefore, Bali should be managed upon the principles of “One Island, One Plan and One Management.”
But, as one of the impacts of Regional Autonomy, Agency of Marine and Fisheries from each regency/municipality works by themselves and uncoordinated. There are also interregional unconformities in the aspects of licensing, utilisation, to supervision.
To avoid, or at least reduce the possibilities of those conflicts, then the importance of having a Bali KKP Network have become more and more demanding. Bali KKP Network is expected to be a medium for each and every regency/municipality to coordinate intensively and align their efforts synergistically. A network of KKP may be established in the local, national, regional or even global level. KKP will be managed more effectively through a network.
How This Network of KKP(s) Works?
There are seven areas and two more existing protected areas (Bali Barat National Park, and Lake Buyan & Tamblingan Natural Park) that are prioritized to be developed and managed through Bali KKP Network. These areas were determined based on the spatial pattern allocated as protection areas as stated in the Spatial Planning of the Province of Bali for the Year 2009 – 2029, and strengthened through series of discussions and surveys conducted across Bali.
Those prioritized areas are expected to represent the characteristic of the ecosystems in Bali. Those proposed areas are: 1) KKP of the Regency of Buleleng; 2) KKP of the Regency of Karangasem; 3) KKP of Nusa Penida in the Regency of Klungkung; 4) KKP of the Regency of Badung; 5) KKP of the Municipality of Denpasar; 6) KKP of the Regency of Jembrana, and; 7) KKP of Lake Batur in the Regency of Bangli.
Parties involved in Bali KKP Network is distinguished in to five principal functions: Decision Makers; Scientific Study; Spatial Planning; Capacity Building; and Sustainable Financing. So, care to join and participate? For further information, kindly contact us.