Putu Liza Kusuma Mustika, I made Jaya Ratha, Saleh Purwanto
Bali, coral reef, coral reef fish, biodiversity, MPA network
Sumber/link lengkap dokumen
Conservation International Indonesia
Jl. Dr. Muwardi No. 17 Renon, Denpasar
BALI – 80235
Phone: (0361) 237 245
The Indonesian province of Bali is located just east of the island of Java and comprises 563,666 ha covering the main island of Bali and the smaller satellite islands of Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan, Pulau Serangan and Pulau Menjangan. Bali is known throughout the world for its unique Hindu culture and as a top global tourism destination. It is also situated in the southwest corner of the Coral Triangle — the region of the highest marine biodiversity on the planet. Bali’s rich marine resources have long been an important economic asset to the island — both as a source of food security for local communities (many of whom derive a significant proportion of their animal protein needs from seafood) and also as a focus for marine tourism. Diving and snorkeling attractions such as Nusa Penida, Candi Dasa, Menjangan Island (Bali Barat National Park), and the Tulamben USS Liberty wreck have been drawing tourists into Bali’s waters for decades, while more recently the private marine tourism sector has expanded the menu of options to include sites like Puri Jati, Karang Anyar, and Amed. Other important economic activities in Bali’s coastal zone include seaweed farming and ornamental fish collecting.
Unfortunately, despite Bali Governor’s Decree No. 324/2000 mandating the implementation of integrated coastal manage- ment in the province, rapid and largely uncoordinated development in Bali’s watersheds and coastal areas, along with a lack of clear marine spatial planning for the island, has led to significant deterioration of many marine environments around Bali. This is due to a combination of overfishing and destructive fishing, sedimentation and eutrophication from coastal development, sewage and garbage disposal at sea, and dredging/reef channel development. At this point in time, the long-term sustainability of the many important economic activities occurring in Bali’s coastal zone is in question.
The Bali provincial government has realized these threats and is now working hard to develop a comprehensive long-term development strategy for the island, including greatly improving spatial planning in both the terrestrial and marine areas of Bali. One important part of this initiative has been the decision by the Bali provincial government to design and implement a compre- hensive and representative network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) around the island that prioritizes sustainable and compat- ible economic activities (including marine tourism, aquaculture and sustainable small-scale fisheries).
To initiate the planning for this network of MPAs, the government held a multistakeholder workshop in June 2010. The work- shop was organized by the Marine Affairs and Fisheries Agency of Bali Province, in collaboration with the Bali Natural Resources Conservation Agency (KSDA), Warmadewa University, Udayana University, United States Agency for International Develop- ment (USAID), Conservation International (CI) Indonesia and local NGOs within the framework of a “Bali sea partnership”. The Bali MPA Network workshop was attended by 70 participants from the provincial government, regency governments, universities, NGOs, private sector, community groups, traditional village groups and fishermen groups.
Importantly, the workshop participants identified 25 priority sites around Bali as the top candidates for inclusion in a net- work of MPAs for the island. This list of sites included existing national/local protected areas such as Bali Barat National Park/ Menjangan Island, Nusa Penida, and Tulamben, while also including a number of additional sites that currently have no formal protection. Later, the 25 priority sites were short-listed into seven MPA candidate sites (see Chapter 6 for the list).
In order to move this MPA network agenda forward, the Bali government (in particular, the provincial Marine Affairs and Fisheries Agency) in early 2011 requested the assistance of Conservation International Indonesia’s marine program in leading a small team of local and international experts to survey the candidate MPA sites identified by the June 2010 workshop and provide clear recommendations on priority development sites and next steps for the design of the MPA network. The team was asked to build upon the survey data com- piled during the November 2008 CI-led “Marine Rapid Assessment” of the Nusa Penida reef system to provide a more comprehensive report on the biodiversity, community structure, and current condition of coral reefs and related ecosystems around Bali. Based upon this information, the team was also requested to provide recom- mendations on how to best prioritize the 25 candidate sites for inclusion in an ecologically-representative network of MPAs.